Change of brand on an existing PS. Re-branding is the process by which a product or service developed with one brand or company or product line affiliation is marketed or distributed with a different identity. This involves radical changes to the brand’s logo, brand name, image, marketing strategy, and advertising themes. It usually results in the repositioning of the brand / company. It may just involve merely superficial changes. Re-branding can be applied to either new products, mature products, or even unfinished products. The process can be done purposely (for example as a result of a deliberate change in strategy), or result from unplanned, emergent, or reactive dynamics (for example out of necessity following corporate restructuring).


An oil refinery is an industrial process plant where crude oil is processed and refined into more useful petroleum products, such as gasoline, diesel fuel, asphalt base, heating oil, kerosene, and liquefied petroleum gas. Oil refineries are typically large sprawling industrial complexes with extensive piping running throughout, carrying streams of fluids between large chemical processing units.

Refinery and Petrochemical Integrated Development (Rapid)

Malaysia's state oil firm Petroliam Nasional (Petronas) board of directors has given the green light for a $16 billion refinery and petrochemical integrated development (Rapid), within the Pengerang Integrated Complex in the southern state of Johor. RAPID aims at building a world-scale integrated refinery and petrochemical complex. The proposed refinery will have a capacity of 300,000 barrels per standard day and will supply naphtha and liquid petroleum gas feedstock for the RAPID petrochemical complex, as well as produce gasoline and diesel that meet European specifications. The petrochemical units, on the other hand, will enhance the value of the olefinic streams coming from the RAPID steam cracker by producing various merchant grades petrochemicals products such as polyethylene, polypropylene, synthetic rubbers and other petrochemicals products.

Refining Margins

The difference in value between the products produced by a refinery and the value of the crude oil used to produce them.


Termination of an agreement.

Renewable Energy

Renewable energy is energy created from sources that can be replenished in a short period of time. The five renewable sources used most often are: biomass (such as wood and biogas), the movement of water, geothermal (heat from within the earth), wind, and solar.


Revenue Expenditure. Same as OpEx.


Return On Average Capital Employed. A different way to calculate ROCE. Instead of using the capital as reported, it uses the average of opening and closing capital for the time period.


Return On Capital Employed.  It is used in finance as a measure of the returns that a company is realizing from its capital employed. The ratio can also be seen as representing the efficiency with which capital is being utilized to generate revenue. It is commonly used as a measure for comparing the performance between businesses and for assessing whether a business generates enough returns to pay for its cost of capital.


Return On Equity.  It measures the rate of return on the ownership interest (shareholders’ equity) of the common stock owners. ROE is viewed as one of the most important financial ratios. It measures a firm’s efficiency at generating profits from every dollar of net assets, and shows how well a company uses investment money to generate earnings growth. ROE is equal to a fiscal year’s net income (after preferred stock dividends but before common stock dividends) divided by total equity (excluding preferred shares), expressed as a percentage.


Return On Investment. Rate Of Return (ROR) or Return On Investment (ROI) or, sometimes, just Return, is the ratio of money gained or lost on an investment relative to the amount of money invested. The amount of money gained or lost may be referred to as interest, profit/loss, gain/loss, or net income/loss. The money invested may be referred to as the asset, capital, principal, or the cost basis of the investment.
Return on Investment = Net Profit Before Tax / Net Worth


ROIC: Return on Invested Capital can be computed as:
ROIC = (Net Operating Profit - Taxes) / (Total Capital)



Research Octane Number. It is determined by running the fuel through a specific test engine with a variable compression ratio under controlled conditions, and comparing these results with those for mixtures of isooctane and n-heptane. Metric, measuring the performance characteristics of motor gasoline. The higher it is the better.


Compensation for the use of property, usually copyrighted or patented material or natural resources, based on an agreed percentage of the income arising from its use or an amount per unit produced.


Rail Truck Loading facility.


Retail Visual Identity. The Corporate ID as implemented in a retail outlet. The sum of all the visual elements used by an organization or company to distinguish itself from its competitors. The symbol, colors, formats and other visual elements of the brand signature.