Debt to Equity. Measures how much money a company should safely be able to borrow over long periods of time.  It does this by comparing the company’s total debt (including short term and long term obligations) and dividing it by the amount of owner’s equity:
D/E = Debt (Liabilities)/ Equity
Sometimes only interest-bearing long-term debt is used instead of total liabilities in the calculation.


Delivered At Frontier. The seller delivers when the goods are placed at the disposal of the buyer on the arriving means of transport not unloaded, cleared for export, but not cleared for import at the named adjoining country.


Discounted Cash Flow using a given discount rate.  Describes a method to value a project or an entire company using the concepts of the time value of money. All future cash flows are estimated and discounted to give them a present value. The discount rate used is generally the appropriate cost of capital and incorporates judgments of the uncertainty (“riskness”) of the future cash flow.


  • DPV is the discounted present value of the future cash flow (FV), or FV adjusted for the opportunity cost of future receipts and risk of loss;
  • FV is the nominal value of a cash flow amount in a future period;
  • d is the discount rate, which is the opportunity cost plus risk factor (or the time value of money: "i" in the future-value equation);
  • n is the number of discounting periods used (the period in which the future cash flow occurs). I.e. if the receipts occur at the end of year 1, n will be equal to 1; at the end of year 2, 2 - likewise, if the cash flow happens instantly, n becomes 0, rendering the expression an identity (DPV=FV)

Delivered Duty Paid. The seller delivers the goods to the buyer, cleared for import, and not unloaded from any arriving means of transport at the named place of destination.


Delivered Duty Unpaid. The seller delivers the goods to the buyer, not cleared for import, and not unloaded from any arriving means or transport at the named place of destination.


A lease of property.

Density or specific gravity

Metric expressing how many mass units are contained in a volume unit of a certain substance. Measured in kg/l or MT/m3.

Depreciation and Amortisation

Depreciation is a decrease in the value of property. Amortization is the process of fully paying off indebtedness by instalments of principal and earned interest over a definite time. Added to EBIT to arrive at an operational cash flow.  The figures are as stated/forecast in both the profit and loss account and flow statements.


Delivered Ex Quay. The seller delivers when the goods are placed at the disposal of the buyer not cleared for import on the quay (wharf) at the named port of destination.


Delivered Ex Ship. The seller delivers when the goods are placed at the disposal of the buyer on board the ship not cleared for import at the named port of destination.


Directorate General of International Activities.


Difference In Exchange. Exchange differences arising on foreign currency transactions should be recognized as income or as expense in the period in which they arise.


Diesel or diesel fuel is a specific fractional distillate of fuel oil (mostly petroleum) that is used as fuel in a diesel engine invented by German engineer Rudolf Diesel. The term typically refers to fuel that has been processed from petroleum, but increasingly, alternatives such as biodiesel or biomass to liquid (BTL) or gas to liquid (GTL) diesel that are not derived from petroleum are being developed and adopted.


Pump. The automated machine that can provide the fuels already stored in it, when spurred by human operator.

Distillation (or separation)

The hydrocarbons in crude oil are distilled in order to separate heavier components, like asphalt, are segregated from light components such as kerosene.

Dividends Paid

Actual cash flow for the year in respect of dividends paid. This may differ from the reported total dividend if part of dividends is not paid in cash (e.g. Stock dividends).


Dealer Owned and Dealer Operated PS. The asset, as well as the stock, are owned by the dealer.


Department of Energy

Downstream Petroleum Industry

The term, downstream refers to all aspects of refining and marketing of petroleum products. It includes petroleum refining, product distribution systems and the marketing and retailing of petroleum, products to businesses and individual consumers.

Drop Size

Quantity of fuel poured into a car’s fuel tank during refueling at a PS.

Dry Gas

Natural Gas, methane and ethane, without any significant content of heavier hydrocarbon fractions.

Dry Hole

An unsuccessful well. Sometimes called a “Duster”.

Dry Stock

Non fuel assortments sold out of a PS.


Dangerous Substance and Explosive Atmosphere Regulations 2002.


Days Sales Outstanding. It is a company’s average collection period. A low figure indicates that the company collects its outstanding receivables quickly. Typically it is looked at either quarterly or yearly (90 or 365 days).
DSO = (Receivables / Sales ) * Days

Due Diligence

It is a term used for a number of concepts involving either the performance of an investigation of a business or person, or the performance of an act with a certain standard of care. It can be a legal obligation, but the term will more commonly apply to voluntary investigations. Some common examples of due diligence in various industries include:

  • The process through which a potential acquirer evaluates a target company or its assets for acquisition.
  • Bounding.

Drilling with oil